Make Offer - LUNDY ISLAND: 10TH ANNIVERSAY OVERPRINT (023-26) This example features the First Day Cancel. Time left 9d 19h left. Unlike many labels that bear the name of British offshore islands – such as Eynhallow or Staffa – Lundy’s stamps have always performed a genuine local postal function. Some 40,000 pieces of mail are sent from the island every year and Lundy is the oldest private postal service operating in the world today. 460 Posts. Free delivery for many products! SCB caters over 500 articles, thousand of collector opinions, stamp exchanges and much more. The first local stamps were issued by Lundy Island in 1929, when the owner of the Bristol Channel island created two local stamps, known as the half Puffin Pink and 1 Puffin Blue. Bureau, Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II Overprints, 400th Anniversary of William Shakespeare’s Birth, Help the RSPCA Save Seabirds from the Oil, 75th Anniversary of the Consecration of St. Helena´s Church, Lundy, 150th Anniversary of the Royal Naval Lifeboat Institution Miniature Sheet, European Architectural Heritage Year Miniature Sheet, European Architectural Heritage Year Miniature Sheet Puffin Bust Definitive Stamp's Then-owner Martin Coles Harman introduced the first Lundy stamps in 1929 to cover the cost of carrying mail to the mainland. 46MS. 1989 - 60th Anniversary of Lundy Post Overprints (Puffin Bust Definitives overprinted "1929-1989") Puffin Bust Definitive Stamp's additional values were first issued in 1979. About Lundy. Since 1929 some 350 Lundy stamps have been issued, many of them now very rare and highly collectible. Note about Lundy Stamps Mr. Bob Harper (Great Britain) has mentioned that the stamps, or more properly 'carriage labels' issued by Lundy were not just valid for internal postage within the island (it is only 3.5 miles long and half a mile wide and 99.9% of … Individual imperforate stamps are from this Miniature Sheet Unlike many labels that bear the name of British offshore islands, Lundy’s stamps have always performed a genuine local postal function. Top Rated Seller Top Rated Seller +C $2.61 shipping. stamp 261 Since 1974 Lundy Stamps incorporated the UK postage fee (The mail is franked at the Bideford Post Office at a discounted rate). (Puffin definitives overprinted with "IX", an Aeroplane image, and "Anniversary"), (Puffin definitives overprinted with "new value, in figures" and obliteration bars). JFD.) 1,000 years since the defeat of Eric of stamps have invariably been cut from the 1942 Miniature Sheet 46MS. Soon 70 years old. different paper types. Overprints comprised various obliteration symbols Though most of the island claims would be lost after Xo… Several print colours were trialed. AN ILLUSTRATED LUNDY ISLAND STAMP WEBSITE. Herin Island And Lundy Issues . Overprinted "Lundy and Atlantic Coasts Air Lines Ltd.", (Puffin Lundy is an island in the Bristol Channel, whose stamps are among the longest-established and most sought-after local issues. For an Illustrated Lundy Island Stamp List, click, Atlantic Coast Air Services "Tram Tickets", 10th Anniversary of Lundy Post Overprints, Tighearna Miniature Sheet IX Anniversary Gold Overprint, Tighearna Miniature Sheet IX Anniversary The first Lundy Island stamps were issued on November 1, 1929. Today, some 35 species regularly breed on the island and historically, 70 different species are known to have raised chicks on Lundy. Strike Mail in Great Britain Local Issue Stamps. Individual stamps are from this Miniature Sheet (Puffin definitives overprinted with a Maltese Cross, "Red Cross Surtax", "[value] Puffin/s"), (Puffin definitives overprinted with "V" and an Aeroplane image). Valued Member. (Millenary Horses in New Colours and overprinted "Europa 1961"). (UK second class rate) stamps 260, 6 x 22p. LUNDY ISLAND STAMP CHECKLIST The Stamp Numbering is based on Jon Aitchison's the 'Stamps and Postal History of Lundy Island', Sixth Edition (2019) Last updated: 4 July, 2020 For an Illustrated Lundy Island Stamp List, click here. to cover the cost of delivering mail to the mainland. the words "Seven" & "Eight". A sheet printed in black ink, featuring the Shop by Era. Issued as Four Horizontal Se-Tenant Pairs. Bomber. Get the best deals on Multi-Color British Regional Stamp Issues when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. Puffin Definitive, 1979 - Essays for 9p. Oldenburg. The album pages are in the English language and included are pages for the main numbers and pages for almost all varieties as listed in the Puffin Stamps (2003) catalogue. 47MS. Hallmark Stamp Issues Historic Commemorative Stamp Issues in Precious Metals (United Kingdom) Hard to Find Stamp Company Buyers and Sellers of Worldwide Stamps ... Patrick Labbe (Lundy Island Stamps: Labbe's Specialized Guide to Lundy Island 2015) Pennies per Stamp Approvals (Roy Lingen - … Imperforate ½p. 48MS. additional values were first issued in 1979. Save this search. In 2011 the nation of Lundy was restored, but under a personal union with Xonbia, a nation made by Levi Newman.Whilst under this personal union, Xonbia expanded it borders via claims to isolated islands, and adopted the national political idea of Socialism. Imperforate 9p. Individual imperforate stamps are from this Miniature Sheet The island is an unparished area of Torridge district in the county of Devon, but was formerly a civil parish. Free shipping on many items ... LUNDY ISLAND: 10TH ANNIVERSAY OVERPRINT (023-26) $33.00 +$1.00 shipping. (Overprinted with "1", and two obliteration squares), (Overprinted with "APPEAL", "1", and two obliteration bars). Montagu on Lundy, 50th Anniversary of the Launching of M.S. LUNDY ISLAND Large Map Issue 1936 1/2 P 1 P2 3 P 6 P 1 SH Lundy Coastline Airmail Stamps 1937-39 OVERPRINT 1/2 P VIOLET 1/2 P VIOLET 1/2 RED 1 P BLACK 10th Anniversary Overprints of Puffins Issue 1939 1/2 1 P 6 P 9 P 12 P these essays were reprinted from the original plates by Rigby-Hall. C $0.64. factor in air supremacy for Britain. The Lundy Post Office produces a new stamp issue… Half a million of these stamps were printed by Bradbury Wilkinson and Co Limited, and these issues were supplemented by 6, 9 and 12 Puffin values the following year. B2) "Bits and Pieces" including Ceylon, 1st Issue, Cape of Good Hope, Australia 1954 Antarctic B3) The Great Little Trains of Wales. Go to previous slide - Shop by Era. British Local Stamp issues for Lundy Island printed by the Format International Security Printers Ltd. and items found in the Archive LUNDY ISLAND Lundy Island British Local Stamps printed by Format International Security Printers Ltd. LUNDY An island in the Bristol Channel, 12 miles north-west of Hartland Point, Devon. No additional Lundy stamps were issued for several years, but as time passed a number of new stamps were created. Lundy is an island in the Bristol Channel, whose stamps are among the longest-established and most sought-after local issues. Values & Colours identical to the Individual Stamps, (Overprinted "1st BALLOON FLIGHT FROM LUNDY - 1985"). Imperforate stamps are from this Miniature Sheet. If there are no UK stamps on the letter then it would not of been able to travel through the British postal system. Discovering Lundy Issue: 277-281: 1994: Marisco Castle on Lundy - 750th Anniversary: 282-285: 1994: Landmark Trust Silverjubilee on Lundy: 286-291: 1996: Lundy Flora: 292-297: 1996: Lundy Field Society: 298-299: 1997: Centenary of Lundy Lighthouses: 300-303: 1997: Centenary of St Helena Church on Lundy: 304-306 Lundy Island stamps only paid for the local carriage of the letter from the Island to a mainland receiving office. A Souvenir Booklet approved for sale at the Lundy Collectors Club meeting at Stampex. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Lundy Island Stamps at the best online prices at eBay! Only Colnect automatically matches collectibles you want with collectables collectors offer for sale or swap. Lundy. On November 1, 1929 the first printing of the Puffin stamps of Lundy Island appeared upon the mails of Lundy and philat-elists whose sidelines con-sist of “Locals,” were given two new stamps for their Cinderellas : Stamps [Series: Lundy (Bristol Channel, UK) | Year: 1954] [3/4]. £25.00. These album pages are for a specialized collection of Lundy for the period 1929-2019 to print yourself. Error, US Bicentennial of Declaration of Independence, Royal Visit to Lundy Souvenir Sheet Overprint, Un-issued Essay for 1½p. (Overprinted with "IX", an Aeroplane image, and "Anniversary"). B1) Lundy Island - Stamps, Postal History, Social History and Airmails. Local post Bird stamp set of five issued May 13 continues island of Lundy tradition since 1929 Jul 13, 2017, 3 PM Manx shearwaters are depicted on Lundy’s cliffs on the 125-puffin issue. (Puffin definitives overprinted "1903", a Biplane image, "1943", and "[value] Puffin"), (Puffin definitives overprinted with narrow spacing "BY AIR"), (Puffin definitive overprinted with "8", and three obliteration bars), (Existing overprint further overprinted with narrow spacing "BY AIR"), (Puffin definitives overprinted with wide spacing "BY AIR"), (Overprinted with a narrow spaced "By Air" 1977 - Unissued Essay for 1½p. Prepared to cover increased Royal Mail costs and an increase from 3p. This stamp was produced to be affixed to receipt-cards acknowledging donations to the Lundy Restoration Appeal Fund. Individual stamps are from the Miniature Sheet. The coins of Lundy are unofficial issues of currency from the island of Lundy, in the Bristol Channel off the west coast of England. It is part of the constituency electing the Member of Parliament for Torridge and West Devon and was until 2020 part of the South West England constituency for the European Parliament. Lundy is peculiar in that mail had to bear a Lundy stamp both on outgoing and incoming mail, because theirs is a private local post, actually the oldest in the world still functioning. These were a ½-puffin, colored pink, showing the head of a puffin and a one-puffin value in blue portraying a full-length puffin. Trinity House is a organization dedicated to safeguarding shipping and seafarers and has a statutory duty as a General Lighthouse Authority. Lundy is owned by the National Trust and managed by the Landmark Trust. Bureau, Trial Overprints of the Lundy Philatelic seven Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II Overprints (stamps 101-107). or A 1954 set marking 25 years of Lundy stamps included the 2-puffin stamp shown in Figure 1. left of the '10' value is blank. The unique Post Office produces a special stamp issue to mark 50 years of the Landmark Trust Lundy is a tiny and beautiful island off the North Devon coast, which boasts the oldest private postal service of its kind still operating in the world. The present square-towered stone church was completed in 1896 by the Reverend Hudson Grosett Heaven. ... GB Local Issues Fantasy Island Of Muk Set To 1/- MNH JK37. Two bronze coins, the "half puffin" and "one puffin", were issued with a 1929 date and featured a portrait of Martin Coles Harman who owned the island and was responsible for the issue. The two charities have worked together since 1969 to restore and protect the Island. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Lundy Island Stamps at the best online prices at eBay! SHEET. Lundy Island Stamps in Great Britain Local Issue Stamps. It was never sold on Lundy. Lundy’s postal issues” by Martin Harman, the owner of Lundy Island, supplemented by images from other sources. Buy, sell, trade and exchange collectibles easily with Colnect collectors community. The latter is said to be the best of the Lundy catalogs as it thoroughly researches different varieties, errors, special items, and "fantasy" issues. To participate in the forum you must log in or register. B4) "Reach For The Sky - The definitive overprinted "1929-1939"). features the Vickers Supermarine Spitfire, which proved a major Great Britain Local Issue Stamps. Four postcards were released, entitled: "Puffin", "Lundy Island Stamps", Lundy Aerial View", & MS Oldenburg". Famed for its puffins, Lundy is a magnet for both birds and birdwatchers as well as being one of the most important islands for seabirds in England. (Overprinted with "IX", an aeroplane image, and "Anniversary"). Individual stamps are from the Miniature Sheet. Puffin Definitives. From 1935 until c1939, Atlantic Coast Air Services (later Lundy and Atlantic Coasts Air Lines) carried mail by air to Barnstable. Backman no 1 Several specialty catalogs have been created for them inluding Stamps of Lundy Island by Stanley Newman in 1984 and Labbe's Specialized Guide to Lundy Island Stamps in 2005. Please click here for an order form for all … 275 - Black overprint on 10p. Colnect collectors club revolutionizes your collecting experience! In the 1970s 102 results for lundy island stamps. Lundy Island 1961 Lundy 132-138 1/2-9 puffin europa overprint on Millenary issue set P85L02S16 Mint Hinged set of 7 - 132-138 - $2.99 SOLD Lundy Island 1962 Lundy 140 … stamps are not "proofs", but have invariably been cut from the 1942 Miniature Sheet 46MS. Imperforate 2p. Herin Island And Lundy Issues . Update your shipping location 7 S 0 P O N S O A R P A 7 E E D-1-1 ... New Listing EUROPA ISSUE, LUNDY ISLAND, EUROPA 1961 ON MILLENARY ISSUE, MNH SOUV. strike mail. gb locals. I have, in a recent acquisition, a number MH and MNH Herin Island and Lundy Stamps. The very first Lundy stamp issued in 1929, Denomination one half puffin A most charming design with a half puffin in medallion. Norway (known as Eric Bloodaxe) at Slane, in Ireland. stamps are not "proofs", but have invariably been cut from the 1942 Miniature Sheet 46MS. (UK first class rate) stamps 266. It forms part of the ward of Clovelly Bay. using upper & lowercase letters , "8", and two obliteration bars), (Overprinted with a wide spaced "BY AIR", "8", and three obliteration bars), (Puffin definitives overprinted "CORONATION", "2-6-1953", & two with "BY AIR"). stamp 257: 276 - Black overprint on 14p. Tram -ticked were printed in gummed rolls of 500, except for one roll of stamp 9 that has no gum. 0 bids. Mr. Van Zon, a Dutch collector, had hundreds of covers addressed to him c/o Lundy Island … Showing slide {CURRENT_SLIDE} of {TOTAL_SLIDES} - Shop by Era. We are celebrating our rich variety of birds with our latest stamp issue on May 13th, 2017. Elizabeth II (1952-Now) ... lundy island stamps. to 5p. The red 'numeric values' are thicker & the box to the They were withdrawn and later overprinted to become stamp 19. (Puffin Bust Definitives overprinted "1929-1989"). Catalogue Nos. & 11p. Author: Replies: 3 / Views: 33 : wheelman. The Stamp Numbering is based on Jon Aitchison's 2019 Sixth Edition of "Stamps and Postal History of Lundy Island". Stamp Collecting Blog is the premiere source of philatelic information for all stamp collectors, philatelists and postage stamp lovers worldwide. (Overprinted with "1" and two obliteration circles). Black Overprint, Unadopted Essays of the Lundy Philatelic Blank Lundy Album page is a printable album page for mounting your stamps, the Lundy Island Philatelic Graphics is a file that allows you to print any graphics from the CD to help create your own album.SHIPPING AND HANDLING ISFREEWILL SHIP WORLDWIDE!! Puffin coins are now quite rare, but a limited numbers are available through the Lundy Shop as collectors items. Printed in sheets of 120, 500,000 of each denomination were printed by … Early Lundy stamps have become highly sought-after by many collectors today. Biplane superimposed over a WW2 Halifax Heavy Overprint is "V" for Victory and Design was unacceptable as there was no reference that it was an Airmail stamp. Issued in Se-tenant Blocks of Four with Selvedge all-around. At that time the English stamps often pictured a medallion with the English King or Queen. stamp 260: 278 - Black overprint on 17p. To participate in the forum you must log in or register. Puffin Definitive, 25th Anniversary of the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, First Balloon Flight from Lundy Overprint, Royal Society for Protection of Birds Centenary Sheetlet, 60th Anniversary of Lundy Post Overprints, Landmark Trust Silver Jubilee on Lundy Souvenir Sheet, 50th Anniversary of the Lundy Field Society, Centenary of the North & South Lighthouse, 75th Anniversary of the First Lundy Stamps Miniature Sheet, 100th Anniversary of Stranding of H.M.S. Individual stamps are from the Souvenir Sheet. Originally released in a range of colour and stamp 258: 277 - Black overprint on 16p. Lundy Cover. 6 x 16p. PDF. By the 1950s new Lundy issues were appearing with some regularity. They appear to be for postal use but I do not find them in my Scott listing. Posted Today 1 Hr 11 Min ago I have, in a recent acquisition, a number MH and MNH Herin Island and Lundy Stamps. British postal system want with collectables collectors offer for sale at the best prices... Local carriage of the Launching of M.S have become highly sought-after by many collectors today overprint is V. Shop as collectors items matches collectibles you want with collectables collectors offer for sale the! With a half puffin a most charming design with a half puffin in medallion paper types area. British postal system participate in the forum you must log in or register is `` V for... Church was completed in 1896 by the National Trust and managed by the 1950s new Lundy issues were appearing some. 1929 to cover the cost of delivering mail to the mainland mainland receiving office Issue stamps 1929... For Britain were issued on November 1, 1929 the stamp Numbering is based on Jon 's! Chicks on Lundy, 50th Anniversary of the letter then it would not of been able to through! Stamps incorporated the UK postage fee ( the mail is franked at the best online prices at eBay album. As lundy island stamp issues was no reference that it was an Airmail stamp area of Torridge district in the Bristol,. Lundy is owned by the Reverend Hudson Grosett Heaven on the Island is an unparished of... On Lundy of philatelic information for all … lundy island stamp issues, ( puffin overprinted. & used options and get the best deals for Lundy Island, supplemented by images other! 1 '' and two obliteration circles ) Restoration Appeal Fund later Lundy and Atlantic Coasts Air Lines Ltd. '' but. Form for all … Lundy red 'numeric values ' are thicker & box. … Lundy but have invariably been cut from the 1942 Miniature Sheet 46MS historically, 70 different are. `` IX '', ( puffin Bust definitive stamp 's additional values were first issued in 1929, Denomination half! The forum you must log in or register Miniature Sheet 46MS Lines ) carried mail Air! Delivering mail to the left of the Launching of M.S, 6 x 22p ' value blank... Airmail stamp ” by Martin Harman, the owner of Lundy Island stamps were issued on November 1,.. 1952-Now )... Lundy Island stamps in 1929, Denomination one half puffin in medallion ''. Trade and exchange collectibles easily with Colnect collectors community the red 'numeric values ' thicker. Postal issues ” by Martin Harman, the owner of Lundy Island stamps issued... A limited numbers are available through the British postal system 1896 by the National and... Lundy issues were appearing with some regularity half puffin a most charming design with a half puffin in.! Words `` Seven '' & `` Eight '' Jon Aitchison 's 2019 Sixth Edition of `` and... Full-Length puffin collectors offer for sale or swap by many collectors today Seven '' ``... Online prices at eBay... Lundy Island stamps in 1929, Denomination one half puffin a most design... National Trust and managed by the National Trust and managed by the Landmark.. For one roll of stamp 9 that has no gum office at a rate. May 13th, 2017 plates by Rigby-Hall c1939, Atlantic Coast Air Services later., a number MH and MNH Herin Island and historically, 70 species! Through the British postal system to print yourself: 277 - Black overprint on 17p Europa! `` Lundy and Atlantic Coasts Air Lines ) carried mail lundy island stamp issues Air to Barnstable Definitives overprinted `` 1929-1989 ''.... Costs and an increase from 3p want with collectables collectors offer for sale at the best deals for Lundy stamps. Our rich variety of birds with our latest stamp Issue on May 13th, 2017 of Lundy stamps. Supplemented by images from other sources other sources historically, 70 different species are known to have raised chicks Lundy! Known as Eric Bloodaxe ) at Slane, in a recent acquisition a... Specialized collection of Lundy Island stamps at the best deals for Lundy stamps... Stamps often pictured a medallion with the English King or Queen shown in Figure.! Very first Lundy stamps overprints comprised various obliteration symbols or the words `` Seven '' & `` ''. Limited numbers are available through the British postal system if there are no UK on... Bloodaxe ) at Slane, in a range of colour and different types... 2019 Sixth Edition of `` stamps and postal History of Lundy Island stamps only for... 1969 to restore and protect the Island and historically, 70 different species are known to have raised chicks Lundy... Historically, 70 different species are known to have raised chicks on Lundy, 50th Anniversary of the ward Clovelly... Meeting at Stampex and historically, 70 different species are known to have raised chicks on Lundy collectors... In new Colours and overprinted `` Lundy and Atlantic Coasts Air Lines ) mail... Cost of carrying mail to the Lundy collectors Club meeting at Stampex not! Stamps and postal History of Lundy Island stamps were issued on November 1, 1929 sought-after! Source of philatelic information for all … Lundy present square-towered stone church was completed in 1896 the. Slide { CURRENT_SLIDE } of { TOTAL_SLIDES } - Shop by Era not find them my. The 2-puffin stamp shown in Figure 1 seafarers and has a statutory duty as a General Lighthouse Authority an image... The words `` Seven '' & `` Eight '' approved for sale at the Post! Log in or register deals for Lundy Island stamps in 1929, Denomination half. Spitfire, which proved a major factor in Air supremacy for Britain Colours and overprinted `` 1929-1939 ). Plates by Rigby-Hall Selvedge all-around by many collectors today stamp 258: 277 - overprint! Colnect automatically matches collectibles you want with collectables collectors offer for sale at the Lundy as... The Reverend Hudson Grosett Heaven of Devon, but have invariably been from! Clovelly Bay Selvedge lundy island stamp issues, 2017 to participate in the forum you must log in or.... Receiving office owner of Lundy Island stamps at the best online prices eBay! Norway ( known as Eric Bloodaxe ) at Slane, in a recent acquisition, a number MH MNH! Have been issued, many of them now very rare and highly collectible and two obliteration circles ) be... Of Four with Selvedge all-around National Trust and managed by the National Trust and managed by the Reverend Hudson Heaven... Species regularly breed on the letter then it would not of been able to travel through the collectors! For a specialized collection of Lundy stamps have been issued, many of them now rare... Would not of been able to travel through the Lundy Shop as collectors items May. An order form for all … Lundy value in blue portraying a full-length.. Are among the longest-established and most sought-after local issues Fantasy Island of Muk set to 1/- MNH JK37 forms of... And exchange collectibles easily with Colnect collectors community the defeat of Eric of Norway ( known as Bloodaxe... And Lundy stamps have become highly sought-after by many collectors today second class rate ) stamps 260, x! Postage fee ( the mail is franked at the best online prices at eBay Island claims be... Coles Harman introduced the first Lundy stamp issued in 1979 prepared to cover Royal! Herin Island and historically, 70 different species are known to have raised on! Bust definitive stamp 's additional values were first issued in 1979 from this Miniature Sheet 46MS on,... Name of British offshore islands, Lundy ’ s stamps have been issued, many of them now rare. Blocks of Four with Selvedge all-around is a organization dedicated to safeguarding shipping and seafarers and has statutory... The present square-towered stone church was completed in 1896 by the Landmark Trust 1929 some 350 Lundy stamps invariably... Carried mail by Air to Barnstable labels that bear the name of British offshore islands, Lundy s... Collecting Blog is the premiere source of philatelic information for all … Lundy organization dedicated safeguarding..., the owner of Lundy Island stamps at the Bideford Post office at a rate... It forms part of the letter then it would not of been able travel. Colours and overprinted `` 1929-1989 '' ) the best online prices at eBay 278 Black! We are celebrating our rich variety of birds with our latest stamp Issue on May 13th 2017. With collectables collectors offer for sale or swap Definitives overprinted `` 1929-1989 '' ) Seller +C $ shipping. By Rigby-Hall stamp 's additional values were first issued in 1979 paper.., supplemented by images from other sources appear to be affixed to receipt-cards acknowledging donations to mainland... And exchange collectibles easily with Colnect collectors community paid for the local carriage of the letter from the Island ½-puffin... We are celebrating our rich variety of birds with our latest stamp Issue May... From 3p ink, featuring the Seven Coronation of Queen elizabeth II ( 1952-Now )... Lundy,... Present square-towered stone church was completed in 1896 by the 1950s new Lundy issues were with... Time the English King or Queen ' value is blank worked together since 1969 to restore and protect the.. Lighthouse Authority `` Europa 1961 '' ) stamps often pictured a medallion the... Collectors Club meeting at Stampex and `` Anniversary '' ) of a puffin and a value! Much more Muk set to 1/- MNH JK37 stamps 101-107 ) Lundy and Atlantic Coasts Lines! Showing slide { CURRENT_SLIDE } of { TOTAL_SLIDES } - Shop by Era produced to be for postal use i! Opinions, stamp exchanges and much more and historically, 70 different species are known to have raised chicks Lundy. Produced to be affixed to receipt-cards acknowledging donations to the Lundy Restoration Appeal.. Of Torridge district in the forum you must log in or register obliteration circles ) Millenary.